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In Indigenous, Metis, and Inuit cultures the Circle of Courage is a model of youth empowerment supported by contemporary research, the heritage of early youth work pioneers and indigenous philosophies of child care. The model is encompassed in four core values: belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity. The central theme of this model is that a set of shared values must exist in any community to create environments that ultimately benefit all.

When the Whole School began learning about the Circle of Courage model, it seemed to reflect many of the values we hold important as a community and provide a structure through which we could bring these teachings to the children and parents of the community. 


The teachers quickly integrated Circle of Courage teachings into the daily curriculum and also use it to support our holistic approach to tracking the progress of each child.  It has been a natural process of integrating the ‘Virtues Program’ of the Whole School with the values brought forth through the Circle of Courage.

The Whole School fosters an environment that promotes belonging; each child has their unique gifts to foster and bring forth to offer their community.  An environment that promotes courage is one that fosters changes to meet the needs of the young person and society.

The model is represented by a circle – the medicine wheel – that is divided into quadrants. The circle is sacred and suggests the interconnectedness of life. Likewise, it expresses the sacredness of the number four – the four directions, the four elements of the universe, and the four races. Each quadrant of the CIRCLE OF COURAGE stands for a central value – belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity – of an environment that can claim and reclaim all youth. It represents the “cultural birthright for all the world’s children.”

The Circle of Courage is a philosophy that integrates the best of Western educational thought with the wisdom of indigenous cultures and emerging research on positive youth development. The circle suggests the importance of the shared values of belonging, generosity, independence, and mastery. While the four dimensions of the Circle of Courage can be described individually, they must be viewed as one. Ideas from the book Reclaiming Youth at Risk: Our Hope for the Future offer insight on understanding the four values:


In indigenous cultures, significance was nurtured in communities of belonging. Lakota anthropologist Ella Deloria described the core value of belonging in these simple words: “Be related, somehow, to everyone you know.” Treating others as kin forges powerful social bonds that draw all into relationships of respect.


Theologian Martin Marty observed that throughout history the tribe, not the nuclear family, always ensured the survival of the culture. Even if parents died or were not responsible, the tribe was always there to nourish the next generation.


Competence in traditional cultures is ensured by guaranteed opportunity for mastery. Children were taught to carefully observe and listen to those with more experience. A person with greater ability was seen as a model for learning, not as a rival. Each person strives for mastery for personal growth, but not to be superior to someone else. Humans have an innate drive to become competent and solve problems. With success in surmounting challenges, the desire to achieve is strengthened.


Power in Western culture was based on dominance, but in tribal traditions it meant respecting the right for independence. In contrast to obedience models of discipline, indigenous teaching was designed to build respect and teach inner discipline. From earliest childhood, children were encouraged to make decisions, solve problems, and show personal responsibility. Adults modelled, nurtured, taught values, and gave feedback, but children were given abundant opportunities to make choices without coercion.


Finally, virtue was reflected in the preeminent value of generosity. The central goal in indigenous people child-rearing is to teach the importance of being generous and unselfish. In the words of a Lakota Elder, “You should be able to give away your most cherished possession without your heart beating faster.” In helping others, youth create their own proof of worthiness: they make a positive contribution to another human life.

The Circle of Courage has been incorporated into the Whole School curriculum in a number of ways, starting with discussion of core values at the morning circle each day with our students. These core values guide the structure throughout the day for students, such as in acting out values through drama or as a great focal tool for discussion in our literature circles. Then at closing circle, to acknowledge other’s positive actions throughout the day, students and staff share their written ‘Positive Vibration’ notes to be taken home by students allowing them to share these values with their families.

On a broader level, every year the students and teachers cooperatively create a student contract that reflects the ideal teaching environment, now they incorporate the core values of the Circle of Courage. The four core values are also emphasized in the structure of the annual Winter Performance and are a focus for student’s skits. Furthermore, the students hold regular Generosity Projects to give back to the community. For example, once the students decided to raise money for residents who lost their homes in a local building fire by making and selling hot chocolate in the community.

Beyond the classroom, the actual “circle” of the Circle of Courage model is used to develop Individual Education Plans, the four core values are a framework for annual student reports and the students complete annual self-assessments that reflect how they see these values reflected in their learning.

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